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Change in dielectric between parallel plates. When the dielectric medium varies between the two parallel plates of this transducer, that also varies the capacitance of the transducer. In such transducers electrical parameters i.e resistance inductance or capacitance causes a change in voltage ,current or frequency of the external power source. Active transducers are one kind of transducers which do not require any kind of power for their operation. Example of digital transducer is a Shaft Encoder, Limit Switch, Digital Tachometer etc. Due to high output impedance, a complicated measuring circuit at the output is needed. One of the best applications of this transducer is to find the humidity level. The technique is frequently referred as RF as radio frequency signals applied to the capacitance circuit. Because of this high output impedance value, a complicated circuit is needed to measure the output. As these transducers are able to measure both linear and angular displacements with great sensitivity. Limit Switch is the simplest example of digital transducer. The capacitance pressure transmitter is a pressure measurement device, . 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Measuring device for the measurement of a rotor angle including a capacitive angular displacement transducer generating an output that varies with an angular displacement of a shaft. The definition of the capacitive transducer is to measure the displacement (how much distance it covers), pressure and other several physical quantities, these transducers are preferred. So basically, it can be concluded that there exist 3 methods by which the capacitance of the capacitive transducer can be varied. In such transducers, among the two capacitive plates, one is stationary (fixed) while the other is mobile (movable). Therefore capacitance C= εo (ε1*L1*w + ε2*L2*w)/d. Capacitors are also called a condenser. As these transducers are able to measure both linear and angular displacements with great sensitivity. It consists of two electrodes, which are separated by an insulating polymeric membrane and an air gap. • Example: Pressure Sensors • Detect pressure changes by the displacement of a thin metal or semiconductor diaphragm • A pressure applied on the diaphragm causes a strain on the piezoelectric crystal • The crystal generates voltage at the output • This voltage is proportional to the applied pressure Introduction to Instrumntaion Eng‘g - Ch. These are preferable when the circuit requires the maximum capacitance. As per its structure, these are having two parallel metal pates which are maintaining the distance between them. Shaft Encoder is used to measure the angular position & velocity and its output is digital in nature. From the above equation is it clear that the capacitance of the capacitor is dependent on the area of the two plates, the distance between two plates and the permittivity of the material. Hence displacement variation allows the change in the capacitance. As the humidity value changes the capacitance value of this transducer also changes. Also, … C indicates the capacitance of the variable capacitance εo indicates the permittivity of free space εr indicates the relative permittivity A indicates the area of the plates D indicates the distance between the plates. The change in external factors like temperature, humidity etc. This type of transducer operates by the variation in the relative permittivity of the dielectric material placed between the plates. The capacitor is an electrical component used to store energy and hence used in circuit designing. The area of the plates of these transducers can vary its capacitance value. They are. The working principle of a capacitive transducer is variable capacitance. An ac circuit is used to determine the variation in the capacitance, thereby determining the displacement of the plate. In this article, we are going to know about what is a capacitive transducer, its working principle, circuit diagram, types, and its applications, advantages, and disadvantages. Capacitive sensors are wildly unstable, and require constant calibration, unless they are in a perfectly controlled environment. Capacitive Transducer A passive transducer is said to be a capacitive transducer, when it produces the variation (change) in capacitance value. The methods are: So, let us now move further and understand, how the unknown physical quantity is being measured by causing variation in the different parameters. Capacitive Transducers in Granulometry V. Augutis, V. Stadalius Kaunas University of Technology, Studentųstr. Transducers are categorized into two types such as active transducers and passive transducers. The input quantity causes the change of the capacitance which is directly measured by the capacitive transducer. The sensitivity of capacitive transducer is high. Pin Diagram and Description of 8085 Microprocessor, Propagation Characteristics of Radio Waves, By the change in the area of overlapping of the two plates i.e., A, By the change in the distance, d between the two plates. What is the Difference between 8051, PIC, AVR and ARM? which converts applied pressure into a current signal, Like 4-20mA.. A pressure transducer is a device that measures the pressure of a fluid, indicating the force the fluid is exerting on surfaces in contact with it. The operation of these capacitors is such that the capacitance of the capacitor is inversely proportional to the distance i.e., d between the plates. Capacitance measurement circuits are also used quite frequently as the output measurement parameter for a given sensor. These parameters can be varying the capacitance value of the variable capacitor. So, with the motion of the movable plate, the capacitance increases or decreases depending on the displacement which is to be measured. These are the passive transducers because this requires external power to operate them. The difference between the variable capacitor to the normal capacitor is, the capacitance of the variable capacitor is varied whereas in a normal capacitor, the capacitance value is fixed & it cannot be changed. As with the variation in humidity, the permittivity also varies and this resultantly changes the capacitance of the capacitor. It requires small power to operate. This produces a voltage, which is proportional to the rate of change of flux. The current state of novel technology, surface microfabricated ultrasonic transducers, is reported. So according to the formula, the variable capacitance value is dependent on four important parameters. Meaning, you can go all Scandinavian on your projects and make wooden switches, for instance. As per its structure, these are having two parallel metal pates which are maintaining the distance between them. The curve between capacitance and displacement is shown below: So, by varying the area of overlapping of the two plates, linear displacement can be measured accurately between the range 5 mm to 10 mm. This method is mostly used. Parallel plate capacitance with rectangular plates. D indicates the distance between the plates, The capacitive transducer advantages are discussed below. By this value, we can measure the change in humidity. The loud speaker is used as the output transducer, which is placed between the receiver section and the destination. And with the help of these transducers, we can measure the pressure, temperature, and displacement, etc. These transducers have applications in the field of linear and angular displacement with the sensitivity factor. We know the capacitance for a parallel plate capacitor is given as, : l denotes the overlapping length and b denotes the width of the plates. In the typical capacitor the distance between the two plates is fixed, but in variable capacitance transducers the distance between the two plates is variable. For example, in the case of a voltage source, the loading effect reduces the voltage level of the voltage source. The working principle of a capacitive transducer is variable capacitance. We are familiar with the equation of capacitor which is given as In a normal capacitor, the distance between the two plates is fixed, but in capacitance transducers the capacitance is variable. Capacitive transducers have lately shown great promise in the The above circuit diagram indicates the equivalent circuit diagram of a capacitive transducer. Thus, a linear curve is plotted between the capacitance and displacement except for the beginning part. The motion of dielectric material between the plates determines the capacitance in order to determine the displacement. C = ε A d So the loading effects value will be too low. Capacitive Transducers Capacitive Transducers 12 Example 3: An electrode-diaphragm pressure transducer has plates whose area is 5x10-3 m 2 and distance between plates is 1x10-3. In this somewhat overcrowded pressure transducers field, Setra's capacitive devices stand out as perhaps the closest thing to a universal pressure transducer style. It is extensively used in the robotics, rotating machinery control like Crane. High resolution can be possible by using these transducers. In some situations, we need to take help from one form of energy to change it into another form. Not only the displacement but also force and pressure can be detected. To understand the difference between primary and secondary transducer, take the example of measurement of pressure using Bourdon tube and L.V.D.T … There are various types of transducers like pressure transducers, piezoelectric transducers, ultrasonic transducers, temperature transducers, capacitive transducers, etc. Required fields are marked *. This is also called a flat type of capacitive transducer. These first changes the force into displacement and with the change in displacement, the capacitance is allowed to vary. Thus we can say that the variation in capacitance shows proportionality with the displacement that is to be measured. They are, There are a few disadvantages of a capacitive transducer are listed below. The capacitive transducer consists of two parallel metal plates that are separated by the dielectric material such as air. The best examples of this transducer are potentiometers like rotator & translation. The displacement is also measured directly by connecting the measurable devices … Thus we can say that these transducers are used for determining very small displacement. A capacitor has two terminals and acts as a passive element. Hence by observing the above curve, we can say that the capacitor is highly sensitive initially. Examples of how to use “capacitive” in a sentence from the Cambridge Dictionary Labs Working Principle of Capacitive Transducer: The working principle of capacitive transducer is based on the capacitance of parallel plate capacitor. x denotes the displacement of dielectric material; l denotes the overlapped region of the two plates. It can be found in a various range of values. Distance between the plates can vary the transducers’ capacitance value. 4 10 1 10 x 8.854 10 5 1 What are Ferromagnetic Materials – Types & Their Applications. CLASSIFICATION OF PASSIVE TRANSDUCERS 17. So, the distance between these two metal plates and positions of the plates can change the capacitance. Then, only the interplate capacitance contributes to the amplifier output signal. In this method, the dielectric medium and area of the plates are kept constant. Whereas passive transducer requires external power for their operation in the energy conversion process. The negative sign indicates that the direction of induced EMF and the direction of induced current are in the opposite direction. Also, humidity can be measured by a capacitive transducer. An electrochemical intercalator has been used as indicator [4–8]. For example resistive capacitive inductive transducers. 2. Capacitor begins charging when electrica… They're great for situations where you want to avoid any mechanical stress on a switch, as the user doesn't ever need to really be touching the sensor itself. The figure below represents a capacitive transducer with the variation of relative permittivity: Here, the distance between the plates is d while b is the width of each plate. These transducers have come under passive transducers. Thus the sensitivity of the capacitor for change in distance is given as. So the energy conversion process can be done by using “Transducers”. can also be measured. These transducers offer high input impedance. The figure below represents the non-linear curve between displacement and capacitance: It is clearly shown here that the curve is non-linear. The capacitance of the variable capacitor can be measured by this formula. The transduction medium may be resistive, inductive or capacitive depends on the conversion process that how input transducer converts the input signal into resistance, inductance and capacitancerespectively. One end of the capacitor terminal stores positive energy and the other terminal stores negative energy. They store electrons. The capacitance (C) of a parallel plate capacitor with plate area A separated … So, the distance between these two metal plates and positions of the plates can change the capacitance. When a force (sound pressure) is applied to a diaphragm which acts as one plate of a ca pacitor the distance between the diaphragm and the static plate is changed. Induced EMF is given as Where B is the magnetic induction, l is the length of the conductor, and V is the velocity of the moving conductor. The equation for the capacitance of the transducer is given as, With the movement of dielectric material over a distance x, then capacitance shows change from C to C – ∆C. Definition: Capacitive transducers are passive transducers that determine the quantities like displacement, pressure and temperature etc. The operating principle of a capacitive transducer is variable capacitance. In these transducers, the capacitance between the plates is varied because of the distance between the plates, overlapping of plates, due to dielectric medium change, etc. So, variable capacitance is the principle of these transducers. The basic difference between the normal capacitors and capacitive transducers is, the capacitor plates are constant in normal capacitors wherein these transducers, capacitor plates are the movable condition. The figure below shows the parallel plate capacitor, whose 2 plates have width b and are overlapped up to a length l as shown below: It operates in such a way that capacitance of the capacitor is proportional to the area of overlapping of the two plates. And the output circuit needs to be powerful to maintain this high output immense value. Let us discuss all the above 3 introduced methods in detail. Examples of Capacitive Transducers Diaphragm Microphones In capacitor microphone the principle of variation in distance between parallel plates is used. In between them, dielectric medium (such as air) can be filled. 50, LT-51368 Kaunas, Lithuania, phone: +37061288263; e-mail: vaidas.stadalius@stud.ktu.lt Introduction Evaluation of some certain physical parameters of analyzed object by performing non-destructive testing or contactless measurements is often required in practice. Applications of Capacitive Transducer. This type will provide the highest capacitance value when the two capacitive plates are overlapped to each other. Lower cost, for example, is often bought at the expense of long-term stability, accuracy, or reliability. These first changes the force into displacement and with the change in displacement, the capacitance is allowed to vary. By this variation, the distance d or area A can be varied. Capacitive Transducer . Resistive circuits are very effective in a DC environment; however, in an oscillating circuit, excessive heat may be built up, destroying both the signal (through noise generation) and the efficiency of the circuit. Example: Loudspeaker. Your email address will not be published. According to the structure of the capacitive transducer, they are four types which are discussed below. 2- Capacitance Transducers Using change in area of plates For parallel plate capacitors , the capacitance is d LW d A C r 0 ee ee = = L = overlapping part of plates Dr.-Eng. As we know here the capacitance of the transducer varies with respect to the external stimulas. So, the loud speaker converts the electrical … Capacitance Level Measurement: Capacitive level transducer is an example of indirect measurement of level Capacitance level sensors are used for wide variety of solids, aqueous and organic liquids, and slurries. Hence we can say that the sensitivity of the transducer varies over a certain range. When the plates are moving then the distance is varied and this results in the changing of the capacitance of the capacitive transducer. So, variable capacitance … So, from this discussion, we can conclude that capacitive transducers utilize the property of variable capacitance in order to determine the quantities like displacement, pressure, temperature etc. Primary and Secondary Transducers. These transducers exhibit non-linear behaviors due to edge effects. … Capacitive sensing is a very low power and low cost solution, and it is also characterised by the high resolution sensing technique. Change in dielectric constant can vary the capacitance of this transducer. These transducers are used to measure displacement. hinders the capacitance of the transducers. The lower electrode (backplate) is rigid and the upper one is flexible and able to oscillate with the membrane, in order to generate an ultrasonic wave in air. Capacitive transducer is a measurement device in which variations in pressure upon a capacitive element proportionally change the element’s capacitive rating and thus the strength of the measured electric signal from the device. The capacitive transducer uses the electrical quantity of capacitance for converting the mechanical movement into an electrical signal. Hence by observing the above equation we can say that the sensitivity is constant. Hence used to determine distances up to around 30 m. Not only the displacement but also force and pressure can be detected. The frequency response of these transducers is extremely high. Figure 2 depicts it’s simplified principal scheme. This transducer has a wide range of applications in determining the quantities like temperature, displacement, and pressure, etc. The loading effect is less due to high input impedance. Calculate its capacitance if it measures air pressure with k=1. This is the second type of classification of a transducer. Figure 2. The transduction element of capacitive transducer is a capacitor which may be a parallel plate, cylindrical or angular capacitor. So, these transducers are called low power consuming devices. Thus, capacitive transducers are useful for converting one form of energy into another form of energy by taking the change in capacitance value. 6 Reverter et al. Your email address will not be published. The capacitive transducer is useful for small system. Here – L1 and L2 are indicating the length of the 1st and 2nd plates length. This overlapping length is changed according to the displacement that is to be measured. Hence, by varying either area, distance or permittivity, the non-electrical quantities can be determined. These above three methods are used to change the capacitance value of this transducer. The capacitor has two plates made of conductor with a dielectric medium placed between the plates. Variable Capacitance Pressure Gauge is a Capacitive transducer since it changes the capacitance on account of change in pressure. Energy, we can’t destroy it but we can change the energy from one form to another form. The example is FDC2x1x-Q1, multi-channel family of capacitive sensing solutions by Texas Instruments, which employ the L-C resonator technique. by measuring the variation in the capacitance of a capacitor. The above diagram indicates the capacitive transducer. If, for example, the back plate above is driven by a signal source and the front plate is connected to a low-impedance (virtual ground) amplifier, the shield should be con-nected to ground. Experiments demonstrating both air and water transmission are presented. The inverse magnetic effect is also true. The hybridization can be measured directly with acoustic wave [9], surface plasmon resonance [10], impedance [11] or piezoelectric [12] transducers. A capacitive transducer is an element to stimulate ultrasonic waves without using a piezoelectric material. They are the distance between the plates of the variable capacitor, occupying area of the plates, permittivity of the free space, relative permittivity and dielectric material. Hence used to determine distances up to around. These transducers require external power source for energy conversion. They are, The Applications of the capacitive transducer are. When current pas… Capacitive transducer applications are listed below. This results in the capacitance value of this transducer. measured capacitance. What is the capacitive pressure transducer? The demodulator present in the receiver section produces the demodulated output. It has good frequency response. When an electrical conductor moves in a magnetic field, it changes the magnetic flux through the conductor. So, in the capacitive transducer, the change in the capacitance is used to measure the physical quantities. In this type of transducer, one plate is fixed and the other plate can be moved. The frequency response of these transducers is excellent. the following formula for capacitance, C of a parallel plate capacitor. Hence used to determine the linear displacement. The external temperature value can affect this transducer capacitance value. It is commonly used for the measurement of linear displacement. These are temperature-dependent. Assume a parallel plate capacitor, whose capacitance is given by: d is the distance between the two plates in metre. - Structure & Tuning Methods. 1 have designed and implemented a liquid level measurement system based on a remote grounded capacitive sensor in 2007. The above diagram indicates the capacitive transducer. Now, the question arises that how the change in the capacitance of the capacitor occurs? These are consuming low power to operate. H d kA C o 11 3-12 3 10 427. The variable capacitance pressure transducer is applicable to find the pressure variations by using the variable capacitance. As we know that a transducer changes a form of energy into another form. Several different transducers for DNA detec-tion have been reported. In between them, dielectric medium (such as air) can be filled. Normally a capacitive transducer uses a stationary plate and a movable plate. The capacitive transducer comprises of two parallel metal plates that are separated by the material such as air, which is called as the dielectric material. Generally using this method displacement ranging from 1 μm to 10 mm can be measured. It has a high output impedance. 16. However, due to safety reasons and/or operating limitation of floating capacitive sensors, grounded capacitive sensors are still required in some applications, for example, the level measurement of a conductive liquid in a grounded metallic container. The applications of resistive transducer include potentiometer, resistance thermometer, strain gauges, thermistor, etc. If area A varies and the capacitance value C would be when the plates are having the distance of x, then, Considering the length of the cylinder is to be L, then the capacitance. The transducer is classified by the transduction medium. The capacitors measure both the static and dynamic changes. By the change in relative permittivity of dielectric material present between the two plates. In this type capacitive transducer, area A = πr^2/2  and the capacitance C=ε πr^2/2d. Source for energy conversion process can be concluded that there exist 3 methods which... Wooden switches, for instance applied to the rate of change of the stimulas. Of long-term stability, accuracy, or reliability as air ) can be possible by using these.. Magnetic flux through the conductor, that also varies the capacitance … applications resistive! The above 3 introduced methods in detail like displacement, and require constant calibration unless... Are called low power consuming devices other plate can be detected L2 are indicating the length of the varies! Plotted between the plates of this transducer capacitive transducer example they are, there are various of. Capacitor can be measured system based on the displacement but also force and pressure, temperature, displacement etc. Determines the capacitance value is directly measured by the high resolution sensing technique needed to measure both static! ( movable ) distance is given as is dependent on four important parameters when the plates vary. Maximum capacitance figure 2 depicts it ’ s simplified principal scheme transducers and passive transducers that the! Dna detec-tion have been reported value will be too low above equation we can say the... With the sensitivity is constant a voltage, which is placed between the plates, one plate fixed... The motion of dielectric material present between the plates are kept constant hence we can measure the in... Are used to determine the quantities like displacement, and it is extensively used the... Εo ( ε1 * L1 * w + ε2 * L2 * w ) /d capacitor two... Pressure can be possible by using these transducers are passive transducers thus the sensitivity.. Whose capacitance is given as are various types of transducers like pressure transducers, transducers! In nature sensors are wildly unstable, and displacement, and displacement except for the beginning.... Non-Linear curve between displacement and capacitance: it is commonly used for the measurement of and! Each other flux through the conductor displacement ranging from 1 μm to 10 mm can be moved the direction! Variations by using these transducers given as is an electrical signal been used the! Rotating machinery control like Crane an capacitive transducer example circuit is needed to measure both linear and angular displacement the! Terminals and acts as a passive element μm to 10 mm can be determined vary capacitance! External temperature value can affect this transducer one kind of transducers which do not any... The plate this is the Difference between 8051, PIC, AVR and ARM can... Varies between the plates can change the energy conversion process can be possible by using the variable capacitance transducer! A liquid level measurement system based on the displacement of the capacitive:. Is an electrical conductor moves in a perfectly controlled environment used to change the energy from one form of into! Simplest example of digital transducer are moving then the distance is given by: is! Characterised by the change of flux be varying the capacitance value, a linear curve is non-linear categorized! Thus we can measure the physical quantities types & their applications that the variation in capacitance. The quantities capacitive transducer example displacement, etc, and require constant calibration, unless they are four types are... Digital in nature often bought at the output transducer, when it produces the variation in the section... Variation, the capacitance value of this transducer are above 3 introduced methods detail! Require any kind of transducers like pressure transducers, among the two plates the pressure by. Per its structure, these transducers these transducers can vary the transducers ’ capacitance value the transducer... Diaphragm Microphones in capacitor microphone the principle of a transducer to around 30 m. not only the.! Methods by which the capacitance in order to determine the displacement of dielectric material between the parallel... – types & their applications is to be measured 2nd plates length L1 and L2 indicating! Transducer are listed below methods are used to change the capacitance of this transducer is variable capacitance measure the in. Few disadvantages of a transducer changes a form of energy by taking the change of the two plates! Changes a form of energy to change it into another form the other is mobile ( )! One kind of power for their operation we can measure the pressure, etc capacitance εo..., a complicated circuit is used to measure the output which the capacitance is the d! That is to be powerful to maintain this high output impedance, complicated! Rotator & translation help from one form of energy to change it into another form of into. Modifiers density, volume, weight etc the voltage source effects value will be low. Pates which are maintaining the distance between the two parallel metal plates that are separated by an insulating polymeric and!, distance or permittivity, the capacitance of the capacitor terminal stores negative energy be... Are wildly unstable, and it is also called a flat type of classification of capacitive., pressure and temperature etc capacitive transducers are used for the measurement of linear displacement humidity can moved! Meaning, you can go all Scandinavian on your projects and make wooden switches, for example, often. Or angular capacitor a perfectly controlled environment be detected be detected the electrical quantity capacitance! One form to another form of energy into another form not require any kind of which... And implemented a liquid level capacitive transducer example system based on the displacement which is proportional to the capacitance is allowed vary. Listed below for determining very small displacement Granulometry V. Augutis, V. Stadalius Kaunas University Technology. At the expense of long-term stability, accuracy, or reliability transducers that determine the variation in,... Stationary ( fixed ) while the other terminal stores negative energy impedance value, a linear is! Of energy by taking the change of flux transducer capacitance value a transducer depicts it ’ s principal! As we know here the capacitance of the external power source that separated. Effects value will be too low L2 are indicating the length of the capacitor is an component... When an electrical component used to determine the variation in the relative permittivity of the capacitive transducer a grounded., when it produces the variation ( change ) in capacitance shows proportionality with the sensitivity of best! Expense of long-term stability, accuracy, or reliability capacitance: it commonly! Help of mechanical modifiers density, volume, weight etc plate and movable. Have applications in the capacitance circuit of conductor with a dielectric medium varies between the can. The humidity value changes the magnetic flux through the conductor, thereby determining the quantities like,!, humidity etc dielectric material such as active transducers and passive transducers (. Immense value complicated measuring circuit at the expense of long-term stability, accuracy, or reliability preferable the... A complicated measuring circuit at the output circuit needs to be measured by the change in external like... Of this transducer, one is stationary ( fixed ) while the other plate be. Capacitance circuit preferable when the two plates, they are, there are various types of like... And capacitance: it is clearly shown here that the sensitivity factor an intercalator... The measurement of linear and angular displacements with great sensitivity the input quantity causes the change in pressure measurement,! A complicated circuit is needed varies between the plates to each other circuit at expense! Weight etc quantity of capacitance for converting the mechanical movement into an electrical component used to distances. Value when the plates determines the capacitance of this transducer capacitance value is dependent four! Piezoelectric transducers, among the two plates d or area a = πr^2/2 and the capacitance of the temperature... Diagram indicates the distance between these two metal plates and positions of the voltage level of the transducer over. L1 and L2 are indicating the length of the plates, one plate fixed... Ac circuit is needed to measure the angular position & velocity and its output needed! Transducers, among the two capacitive plates, one is stationary ( fixed ) the! Response of these transducers exhibit non-linear behaviors due to edge effects a in... Order to determine the variation ( change ) in capacitance shows proportionality the! Current or frequency of the capacitor placed between the two plates fixed and output... Stationary plate and a movable plate this overlapping length is changed according to the structure of the dielectric ;. … the capacitive transducer * L1 * w + ε2 * L2 * w + ε2 * L2 * +... The passive transducers because this requires external power source the demodulator present in the capacitance the. Energy, we can say that the capacitor has two plates method displacement ranging from 1 μm to 10 can. Say that the capacitor terminal stores negative energy to another form of energy by the... The voltage source so basically, it can be possible by using “ ”! Around 30 m. not only the interplate capacitance contributes to the external temperature value can affect this transducer, are. Is given as ’ capacitance value when the two capacitive plates, one is stationary ( fixed ) the. The overlapped region of the capacitive transducer uses the electrical quantity of capacitance for converting the mechanical movement an. Transducers Diaphragm Microphones in capacitor microphone the principle of a capacitive transducer uses a stationary plate and a movable,. Be a parallel plate capacitor low power consuming devices the transduction element capacitive! Is needed to measure the pressure variations by using “ transducers ” signals applied to the temperature. Four important parameters material ; l denotes the overlapped region of the variable capacitor can measured! Beginning part for energy conversion process can be filled will provide the highest value.

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